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Bucharest (Romanian: București pronounced [bukuˈreʃtʲ] ( listen)) is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania. It is the largest city in Romania, located in the southeast of the country and lies on the banks of the Dâmbovița River.
Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements of the Antiquity and until its consolidation as capital of Romania late in the 19th century.
First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became a residence of the Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler. The Old Princely Court (Curtea Veche) was built by Mircea Ciobanul, and under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the court, competing with Târgoviște for the status of capital after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power, the Ottoman Empire.
Burned down by the Ottomans and briefly discarded by princes at the start of the 17th century, Bucharest was rebuilt and continued to grow in size and prosperity. Before the 18th century, it became the most important trade centre of Wallachia and became a permanent location for the Wallachian court after 1698 (starting with the reign of Constantin Brâncoveanu).
Partly destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, and hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–1814, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia (three times between 1768 and 1806). It was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution, and an Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure (remaining in the city until March 1857). Additionally, on 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings, destroying a third of the city.
In 1861, when Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital; in 1881, it became the political centre of the newly-proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, due to its new status, the city's population increased dramatically, and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams and limited electrification were introduced. The Dâmboviţa was also chanelled in 1883, thus putting a stop tgo previously endemic floods. The extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "The Paris of the East" (or "Little Paris", Micul Paris), with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées.
Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the legitimate capital temporarily moved to Iași. After World War I, Bucharest became the capital of Greater Romania. Also, some of the city's main landmarks were built in this period, including Arcul de Triumf and Palatul Telefoanelor. However, the Great Depression took its toll on Bucharest's citizens, culminating in the Griviţa Strike of 1933.
In January 1941, the city was the scene of the Legionnaires' rebellion and Bucharest pogrom. As the capital of an Axis country and a major transit point for Axis troops en route to the Eastern Front, Bucharest suffered heavy damage during World War II due to Allied bombings, and, on 23 August 1944, was the site of the royal coup which brought Romania into the Allied camp, suffering a short period of Luftwaffe bombings as well as a failed attempt by German troops to take the city by force.
After the establishment of communism in Romania, the city continued growing. New districts were constructed, most of them dominated by tower blocks. During Nicolae Ceaușescu's leadership (1965–1989), much of the historic part of the city was demolished and replaced with Socialist realist development such as the Centrul Civic (the Civic Centre), including the Palace of the Parliament, where an entire historic quarter was razed to make way for Ceaușescu's megalomaniac constructions. On 4 March 1977, an earthquake centered in Vrancea, about 135 km (83.89 mi) away, claimed 1,500 lives and caused further damage to the historic centre.
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 began with mass anti-Ceaușescu protests in Timișoara in December 1989 and continued in Bucharest, leading to the overthrow of the Communist regime. Dissatisfied with the post-revolutionary leadership of the National Salvation Front, student leagues and opposition groups organized large-scale protests continued in 1990 (the Golaniad), which were violently stopped by the miners of Valea Jiului (the Mineriad). Several other Mineriads followed, the results of which included a government change.
Study of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.comStudy of Light. Bucharest. Romania 2011 © Nora de Angelli / www.noraphotos.com

Categories & Keywords
Category:Travel and Places
Subcategory:Europe
Subcategory Detail:Romania
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